Antibiotic-resistant infections and appropriate antibiotic use.
The antibiotic revolution has transformed medicine. But even Alexander Fleming—who pioneered it with his discovery of penicillin—warned about the dangers of antibiotic resistance as early as 1945, in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech. 3

Today, our use of antibiotics has resulted in resistance for nearly all antibiotics developed to treat serious infections since the 1940s. These antibiotic resistant microorganisms have been described by world leaders as "nightmare bacteria" that "pose a catastrophic threat" to people in every country in the world. 1 In a global survey that gathered data from 114 member countries, the WHO observed very high resistance rates in both hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections in every region. Astoundingly, the data showed that resistance rates of E. coli , K. pneumoniae , and S. aureus to commonly used antibiotics frequently exceeded 50 percent . 4

Antibiotic use and today’s reality.
As you know, it’s often necessary to treat patients with serious infections empirically while you’re waiting for the causative microbe to be identified. But it isn’t always feasible to wait for results to come in from the lab, especially if they turn out to be inconclusive or polymicrobial, as often happens. 5,6

The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community.

The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community.

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