The origins of the Janissaries are shrouded in myth, although traditional accounts credit Orhan I , an early Osman bey who reigned from 1326 to 1359, as the founder. [4] Modern historians such as Patrick Kinross date the formation of the Janissaries to around 1365, during the rule of Orhan's son Murad I , the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire. [5] The Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army replacing forces that mostly consisted of tribal warriors ( ghazis ) whose loyalty and morale were not always guaranteed. [5]

From the 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme system which was abolished in 1638. [6] This was the recruiting of non-Turkish children, notably Balkan Christians; Jews were never subject to devşirme , nor were children from Turkic families. In early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Greece, Bosnia and Serbia were preferred. [7] [8]

The Janissaries were kapıkulları (sing. kapıkulu ), "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves (Turkish: köle ). [9] They were subjected to strict discipline and were the first army to wear a uniform, but were paid salaries and pensions upon retirement and formed their own distinctive social class. [10] As such, they became one of the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, rivaling the Turkish aristocracy. The brightest of the Janissaries were sent to the palace institution, Enderun . Through a system of meritocracy , the Janissaries held enormous power, stopping all efforts to reform of the military. [6]

the regular Turkish infantry, organized in the second half of the 14th century, who, together with the spahis and akinji (cavalry), formed the core of the Ottoman army. Originally, janissaries were youths who had been driven into slavery; later, Christian boys were forcibly recruited. Converted to Islam, they were considered slaves of the sultan and lived in barracks; they were forbidden to marry or maintain their own households. In addition to service in military campaigns, they were assigned garrison duty in the Balkans and the Arab countries. The janissaries were headed by an aga and were closely associated with the Bectashi dervish order.

The decline of the janissaries began in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Members of the corps settled down with families and engaged in trade and handicrafts. Gradually they were transformed into agents of palace revolutions and a support for the forces of feudal-clerical reaction. In 1826 the janissary corps was destroyed by the Turkish sultan Mahmud II.

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

The origins of the Janissaries are shrouded in myth, although traditional accounts credit Orhan I , an early Osman bey who reigned from 1326 to 1359, as the founder. [4] Modern historians such as Patrick Kinross date the formation of the Janissaries to around 1365, during the rule of Orhan's son Murad I , the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire. [5] The Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army replacing forces that mostly consisted of tribal warriors ( ghazis ) whose loyalty and morale were not always guaranteed. [5]

From the 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme system which was abolished in 1638. [6] This was the recruiting of non-Turkish children, notably Balkan Christians; Jews were never subject to devşirme , nor were children from Turkic families. In early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Greece, Bosnia and Serbia were preferred. [7] [8]

The Janissaries were kapıkulları (sing. kapıkulu ), "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves (Turkish: köle ). [9] They were subjected to strict discipline and were the first army to wear a uniform, but were paid salaries and pensions upon retirement and formed their own distinctive social class. [10] As such, they became one of the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, rivaling the Turkish aristocracy. The brightest of the Janissaries were sent to the palace institution, Enderun . Through a system of meritocracy , the Janissaries held enormous power, stopping all efforts to reform of the military. [6]

The origins of the Janissaries are shrouded in myth, although traditional accounts credit Orhan I , an early Osman bey who reigned from 1326 to 1359, as the founder. [4] Modern historians such as Patrick Kinross date the formation of the Janissaries to around 1365, during the rule of Orhan's son Murad I , the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire. [5] The Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army replacing forces that mostly consisted of tribal warriors ( ghazis ) whose loyalty and morale were not always guaranteed. [5]

From the 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme system which was abolished in 1638. [6] This was the recruiting of non-Turkish children, notably Balkan Christians; Jews were never subject to devşirme , nor were children from Turkic families. In early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Greece, Bosnia and Serbia were preferred. [7] [8]

The Janissaries were kapıkulları (sing. kapıkulu ), "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves (Turkish: köle ). [9] They were subjected to strict discipline and were the first army to wear a uniform, but were paid salaries and pensions upon retirement and formed their own distinctive social class. [10] As such, they became one of the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, rivaling the Turkish aristocracy. The brightest of the Janissaries were sent to the palace institution, Enderun . Through a system of meritocracy , the Janissaries held enormous power, stopping all efforts to reform of the military. [6]

the regular Turkish infantry, organized in the second half of the 14th century, who, together with the spahis and akinji (cavalry), formed the core of the Ottoman army. Originally, janissaries were youths who had been driven into slavery; later, Christian boys were forcibly recruited. Converted to Islam, they were considered slaves of the sultan and lived in barracks; they were forbidden to marry or maintain their own households. In addition to service in military campaigns, they were assigned garrison duty in the Balkans and the Arab countries. The janissaries were headed by an aga and were closely associated with the Bectashi dervish order.

The decline of the janissaries began in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Members of the corps settled down with families and engaged in trade and handicrafts. Gradually they were transformed into agents of palace revolutions and a support for the forces of feudal-clerical reaction. In 1826 the janissary corps was destroyed by the Turkish sultan Mahmud II.

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

Such Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army, replacing forces that mostly comprised tribal ghazis, whose loyalty and morale could not always be trusted.

As corps other than the infantry were added, the totality of the Ottoman standing army corps was called Kapıkulu, however the term Janissary, which formally refers to one of the Kapıkulu corps is often used interchangeably (albeit incorrectly) for all of the Ottoman Kapıkulu Corps.

The Janissary corps were significant in a number of ways. The Janissaries wore uniforms, were paid in cash as regular soldiers, and marched to distinctive music, the Mehter, similar to a modern marching band . All of these features set the Janissaries apart from most soldiers of the time.

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The origins of the Janissaries are shrouded in myth, although traditional accounts credit Orhan I , an early Osman bey who reigned from 1326 to 1359, as the founder. [4] Modern historians such as Patrick Kinross date the formation of the Janissaries to around 1365, during the rule of Orhan's son Murad I , the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire. [5] The Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army replacing forces that mostly consisted of tribal warriors ( ghazis ) whose loyalty and morale were not always guaranteed. [5]

From the 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme system which was abolished in 1638. [6] This was the recruiting of non-Turkish children, notably Balkan Christians; Jews were never subject to devşirme , nor were children from Turkic families. In early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Greece, Bosnia and Serbia were preferred. [7] [8]

The Janissaries were kapıkulları (sing. kapıkulu ), "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves (Turkish: köle ). [9] They were subjected to strict discipline and were the first army to wear a uniform, but were paid salaries and pensions upon retirement and formed their own distinctive social class. [10] As such, they became one of the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, rivaling the Turkish aristocracy. The brightest of the Janissaries were sent to the palace institution, Enderun . Through a system of meritocracy , the Janissaries held enormous power, stopping all efforts to reform of the military. [6]

the regular Turkish infantry, organized in the second half of the 14th century, who, together with the spahis and akinji (cavalry), formed the core of the Ottoman army. Originally, janissaries were youths who had been driven into slavery; later, Christian boys were forcibly recruited. Converted to Islam, they were considered slaves of the sultan and lived in barracks; they were forbidden to marry or maintain their own households. In addition to service in military campaigns, they were assigned garrison duty in the Balkans and the Arab countries. The janissaries were headed by an aga and were closely associated with the Bectashi dervish order.

The decline of the janissaries began in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Members of the corps settled down with families and engaged in trade and handicrafts. Gradually they were transformed into agents of palace revolutions and a support for the forces of feudal-clerical reaction. In 1826 the janissary corps was destroyed by the Turkish sultan Mahmud II.

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

Such Janissaries became the first Ottoman standing army, replacing forces that mostly comprised tribal ghazis, whose loyalty and morale could not always be trusted.

As corps other than the infantry were added, the totality of the Ottoman standing army corps was called Kapıkulu, however the term Janissary, which formally refers to one of the Kapıkulu corps is often used interchangeably (albeit incorrectly) for all of the Ottoman Kapıkulu Corps.

The Janissary corps were significant in a number of ways. The Janissaries wore uniforms, were paid in cash as regular soldiers, and marched to distinctive music, the Mehter, similar to a modern marching band . All of these features set the Janissaries apart from most soldiers of the time.

Janissary | Define Janissary at Dictionary.com


Janissary | Turkish military | Britannica.com

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