Nieves Cremades, Rafael Bernabeu, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa; In-vitro maturation of round spermatids using co-culture on Vero cells, Human Reproduction , Volume 14, Issue 5, 1 May 1999, Pages 1287–1293, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/14.5.1287

In spite of these achievements, the complete absence of elongated spermatids or spermatozoa from the ejaculate or diagnostic testicle biopsy in the previous history of the patient seems to have an adverse effect on the clinical outcome, with no present pregnancy having been obtained with round spermatids in these extremely severe cases ( Amer et al. , 1997 ; Vanderzwalmen et al. , 1997 ; Barros et al. , 1998a , b ; Bernabeu et al. , 1998 ; Kahraman et al. , 1998; Sofikitis et al. , 1998b ).

In-vitro maturing of round spermatids could be one method for the study of the round spermatid block and an effective way to solve the clinical failures. In-vitro culturing with current media has already been evaluated. Barros et al. (1998a,b) and Bernabeu et al. (1998) have clinically applied this technique, but no morphological changes were observed and no beneficial effects were noticed on the clinical outcome, except an improvement of the fertilization rate. On the contrary, and although performed outside clinical application, Aslam and Fishel (1998) have demonstrated that about 22% of round spermatids can grow flagella under in-vitro culturing.

In vitro maturation ( IVM ) is the technique of letting the contents of ovarian follicles and the oocytes inside mature in vitro . It can be offered to women with infertility problems, combined with IVF, offering women pregnancy without ovarian stimulation.

In 1935, Pincus & Enzmann did the first experiment on immature rabbit oocyte, showing in vitro spontaneous maturation and fertilization. [1] They showed maturation occurs in isolation from normal follicular environment. [1] In 1965 Edwards then continued IVM studies in mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human. [2] [3] By 1991, the first pregnancy was recorded using IVM followed by IVF, [4] and in 1994 the first birth using IVM oocytes from polycystic ovarian syndrome patients was recorded highlighting that PCOS patient's oocytes are capable of maturation. [5]

Oogenesis takes place during fetal life, in which primordial germ cells undergo mitosis until a few weeks prior to birth, forming oogonia . These then begin meiosis to form the oocyte within the primordial follicle. [6] This follicle consists of the oocyte surrounded by flattened pregranulosa cells. Babies are born with 1-2 million primordial follicles, and by puberty have around 300,000. [6] Of these primordial follicles, only around 400 mature oocytes are released and could be potentially fertilised, with the rest undergoing atresia. [7]

Nieves Cremades, Rafael Bernabeu, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa; In-vitro maturation of round spermatids using co-culture on Vero cells, Human Reproduction , Volume 14, Issue 5, 1 May 1999, Pages 1287–1293, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/14.5.1287

In spite of these achievements, the complete absence of elongated spermatids or spermatozoa from the ejaculate or diagnostic testicle biopsy in the previous history of the patient seems to have an adverse effect on the clinical outcome, with no present pregnancy having been obtained with round spermatids in these extremely severe cases ( Amer et al. , 1997 ; Vanderzwalmen et al. , 1997 ; Barros et al. , 1998a , b ; Bernabeu et al. , 1998 ; Kahraman et al. , 1998; Sofikitis et al. , 1998b ).

In-vitro maturing of round spermatids could be one method for the study of the round spermatid block and an effective way to solve the clinical failures. In-vitro culturing with current media has already been evaluated. Barros et al. (1998a,b) and Bernabeu et al. (1998) have clinically applied this technique, but no morphological changes were observed and no beneficial effects were noticed on the clinical outcome, except an improvement of the fertilization rate. On the contrary, and although performed outside clinical application, Aslam and Fishel (1998) have demonstrated that about 22% of round spermatids can grow flagella under in-vitro culturing.

Nieves Cremades, Rafael Bernabeu, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa; In-vitro maturation of round spermatids using co-culture on Vero cells, Human Reproduction , Volume 14, Issue 5, 1 May 1999, Pages 1287–1293, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/14.5.1287

In spite of these achievements, the complete absence of elongated spermatids or spermatozoa from the ejaculate or diagnostic testicle biopsy in the previous history of the patient seems to have an adverse effect on the clinical outcome, with no present pregnancy having been obtained with round spermatids in these extremely severe cases ( Amer et al. , 1997 ; Vanderzwalmen et al. , 1997 ; Barros et al. , 1998a , b ; Bernabeu et al. , 1998 ; Kahraman et al. , 1998; Sofikitis et al. , 1998b ).

In-vitro maturing of round spermatids could be one method for the study of the round spermatid block and an effective way to solve the clinical failures. In-vitro culturing with current media has already been evaluated. Barros et al. (1998a,b) and Bernabeu et al. (1998) have clinically applied this technique, but no morphological changes were observed and no beneficial effects were noticed on the clinical outcome, except an improvement of the fertilization rate. On the contrary, and although performed outside clinical application, Aslam and Fishel (1998) have demonstrated that about 22% of round spermatids can grow flagella under in-vitro culturing.

In vitro maturation ( IVM ) is the technique of letting the contents of ovarian follicles and the oocytes inside mature in vitro . It can be offered to women with infertility problems, combined with IVF, offering women pregnancy without ovarian stimulation.

In 1935, Pincus & Enzmann did the first experiment on immature rabbit oocyte, showing in vitro spontaneous maturation and fertilization. [1] They showed maturation occurs in isolation from normal follicular environment. [1] In 1965 Edwards then continued IVM studies in mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human. [2] [3] By 1991, the first pregnancy was recorded using IVM followed by IVF, [4] and in 1994 the first birth using IVM oocytes from polycystic ovarian syndrome patients was recorded highlighting that PCOS patient's oocytes are capable of maturation. [5]

Oogenesis takes place during fetal life, in which primordial germ cells undergo mitosis until a few weeks prior to birth, forming oogonia . These then begin meiosis to form the oocyte within the primordial follicle. [6] This follicle consists of the oocyte surrounded by flattened pregranulosa cells. Babies are born with 1-2 million primordial follicles, and by puberty have around 300,000. [6] Of these primordial follicles, only around 400 mature oocytes are released and could be potentially fertilised, with the rest undergoing atresia. [7]

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