Modern humans ( Homo sapiens , ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens ) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina , a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes . They are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion ; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies . [3] [4]

Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines , whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes —are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo . [5] Several of these hominins used fire , occupied much of Eurasia , and gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 315,000 [6] years ago. [7] [8] They began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. In several waves of migration , anatomically modern humans ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world. [9]

In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo —anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens .

Richmond (London) Station – Zone 4 Onward Travel Information


Planting a Successful Home Vegetable Garden

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